Citric Acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) found in many fruits. It has a polar molecule and can disrupt the coherence of corneocytes of the epidermis. This process is called the chemical peeling type of exfoliation, eliminating dull and old cells from the skin surface.
Studies found that CA enhances collagen I and procollagen II production, improving skin firmness and elasticity. In addition, it increases the cell migration and renewal rate by inducing apoptosis through the mitochondrial pathway eliminating sun-damaged epidermal cells. Also, Citric Acid at high concentrations (20%) may improve the thickness of the epidermis and enhance amounts of GaGs in UV-damaged skin.
Citric Acid is one of the critical members of a cell's primary energy production process called the Krebs cycle or CAC (Citric Acid Cycle), where it oxidized until CO2 with the generation of ATP molecules (fuel for cells or energy storage molecules). So, it energizes cells boosting their functions, proliferation, and renewal.
Citric Acid is one of the essential compounds NMF (natural moisturizing factors) in the skin, which can bind water molecules, enhancing water retention and lessening transdermal moisture loss. As a result, it hydrates skin, providing volume and density, smoothing fine lines and wrinkles, and improving skin suppleness.
CA is a superstar ingredient with numerous benefits that expose a fresher, youthful, and healthy appearance.