Hydroxy acids

Alpha, Beta, and Poly-Hydroxy acids (AHAs, BHAs, and PHAs) are here to transform your skin. They make skin look younger, smoother, and more radiant. So, what are these miraculous ingredients? How do they work? And what are their benefits for the skin? Let's dig deeper.  

AHAs are exfoliating and hydrating agents derived from natural products such as milk (lactic acid), citrus fruits (citric acid), sugar (glycolic acid), pears, and apples (malic acid). These acidic compounds gently "dissolve" dead skin cells on the skin's surface and remove dermal debris. This process is called exfoliation. It is recommended to include exfoliators in the weekly skincare routine and use them at least twice a week if you have oily or acne-prone skin.

In lesser concentrations, AHAs showcase water-binding ability. They combat skin dryness, one of the striking manifestations of aging skin. 

BHAs are oil-soluble exfoliators. The most prominent BHA is Salicylic acid. It dissolves in human sebum very well, so it permeates skin pores and purifies them from within.  It also demonstrates anti-inflammatory and antibacterial properties. The combination of these qualities makes Salicylic acid the ingredient of choice for treating skin imperfections like acne, black, and whiteheads.

Application of AHAs and BHAs substantially changes skin appearance. They visibly lessen fine lines and wrinkles, brighten the skin tone and give it a healthy shine.

Glycolic acid
Contain small-molecule glycolic and salicylic acid that smooth the skin‘s surface, alleviate fine lines and wrinkles, make skin more receptive and stimulate cell regeneration.
Asiatic Acid
Asiatic acid is a powerful antioxidant that soothes UV-induced inflammation and scavenges damaging free radicals such as reactive oxygen species, nitric oxide, and protein carbonyl groups. This PHA also stimulates collagen type I and III production, leaving a significant anti-aging effect.
C12 Alkyl Lactate
C12-13 Alkyl Lactate is a mix of esters of alkyl alcohols with 12 and 13 carbon atom chains and lactic acid (lauryl lactate and Tridecyl lactate), used in skin care applications to reduce tackiness and greasiness of other ingredients, such as petrolatum.
Promotes the breakdown of fat, is a very good skin energizer. It accelerates the fat-burning process, thus boosting energy production by burning the body‘s fat reserves.
Citric Acid
Citric Acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) found in many fruits. It has a polar molecule and able to disrupt the coherence of corneocytes of the epidermis. This process called the chemical peeling type of exfoliation eliminating dull and old cells from the skin surface.
Ferulic Acid
Ferulic acid is a plant-driven potent antioxidant that also enhances the stability of other powerful antioxidants like vitamins C and E in formulations.
Thanks to multiple beneficial effects on the skin, Gluconolactone is used in skin care applications as an exfoliating, chelating, and hydrating ingredient with potent antioxidant action.
Glycolic acid
Glycolic Acid is a alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) derived from sugar cane. It dissolves and whisks away surface dead skin cells to reveal a brighter, healthier, more vibrant complexion.
Hydroxyethylpiperazine Ethane Sulfonic Acid (HEPES)
Although it is not a classic hydroxy acid, thanks to structural similarities and faintly acidic properties, it also acts as an exfoliating agent like AHAs and BHAs, breaking bonds between keratinocytes, softening keratin, and eliminating old, dull, and dead cells from the skin surface.

Kojic acid is a hydroxy acid with the chemical name 5-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethyl-4-pyrone. It is produced by several species of fungi, especially Aspergillus oryzae, which Japanese common name is "koji".

Lactic Acid
A vital part of skin’s NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor), Lactic Acid moisturizes and hydrates skin while stimulating collagen renewal. It is naturally occurring in various food and milk, so the FDA permitted this organic acid for usage as an ingredient in cosmetics and skincare formulations at concentrations lower than 12%.
Lactobionic Acid

Lactobionic acid is a polyhydroxy acid (PHA) that can be produced from lactose (a disaccharide with glucose and galactose units), where the glucose unit is oxidated into gluconic acid.

Kojic Acid

LPD Kojic Acid is a liposome complex that encapsulates kojic acid. Such active is made from several different types of fungi.

Malic Acid
Malic Acid is one of the alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) found in fruits. It is able to interrupt the attachment of corneocytes of the epidermis and exfoliate dull and old cells from the surface of the skin.
Mandelic Acid
It is a stronger acid than glycolic acid (the most famous AHA used in skincare), but epidermal penetration is lower due to the larger molecule size. Thanks to these properties, mandelic acid is a milder exfoliating agent and does not irritate the skin.
Salicylic Acid
Salicylic Acid is one of the beta-hydroxy acids also called BHAs. It's a strong keratolytic (can dissolve keratin), so it used in many formulations for exfoliation, peeling, acne treatment, and so on.
Shikimic Acid

Shikimic Acid is a natural polyhydroxy acid (PHA) obtained from Japanese star anise (Illicium Verum; also called Shikimi). It is a multifunctional active ingredient that promotes cell renewal and exhibits antioxidant and antimicrobial activities.