Citric Acid is an alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) found in many fruits. It has a polar molecule and able to disrupt the coherence of corneocytes of the epidermis. This process called the chemical peeling type of exfoliation eliminating dull and old cells from the skin surface.
Glycolic Acid is a alpha-hydroxy acid (AHA) derived from sugar cane. It dissolves and whisks away surface dead skin cells to reveal a brighter, healthier, more vibrant complexion.
A vital part of skin’s NMF (Natural Moisturising Factor), Lactic Acid moisturizes and hydrates skin while stimulating collagen renewal. It is naturally occurring in various food and milk, so the FDA permitted this organic acid for usage as an ingredient in cosmetics and skincare formulations at concentrations lower than 12%.
Malic Acid is one of the alpha-hydroxy acids (AHAs) found in fruits. It is able to interrupt the attachment of corneocytes of the epidermis and exfoliate dull and old cells from the surface of the skin.
It is a stronger acid than glycolic acid (the most famous AHA used in skincare), but epidermal penetration is lower due to the larger molecule size. Thanks to these properties, mandelic acid is a milder exfoliating agent and does not irritate the skin.