Disodium EDTA (Edetate disodium) is a sodium salt of a water-solvable amino acid that stabilizes emulsions and increases formulations' shelf-life, preventing reactions between ingredients. It is also a strong anionic chelating agent that binds metal ions (cations) like Calcium, Nickel, Chromium, Iron, etc., from the outer layer of the skin.
Urban dust contains heavy metals which may have a negative influence on skin health. For example, 10-20% of people in the US have a nickel allergy. Edetate disodium used in cleansers, masks, or even creams compile stable metal-EDTA complexes preventing the penetration of those metals into deeper layers.
Also, Disodium EDTA enhances Calcium gradient between skin layers by binding in on the surface and promotes cell renewal leaving an anti-aging effect.