Small molecule sugars are a universal energy source for skin cells and popular cosmetic ingredients for moisturizing and probiotic effects. Glucose is one of the simple sugars that supply energy to skin cells and is regularly used in skincare products.
Like other sugars, glucose also captures water molecules enhancing moisture-binging capacity and maintaining skin hydration. In addition, proliferated skin cells like keratinocytes and fibroblasts use it as a fuel converting it into ATP that energizes and stimulates their functions.
Some scientific papers demonstrated that glucose suppresses melanogenesis in melanocytes, but the molecular mechanism of action is unknown yet. Scientists hypothesized that the skin whitening effect occurs indirectly. The skin cells and microbiota metabolize glucose into lactic acid, and it effectively suppresses tyrosinase activity resulting in inhibition of melanin synthesis and skin whitening effect. Anyway, the effectiveness and safety of this sugar were proven practically.