Aldenine® captures noxious RCS (reactive carbonyl species), which skin cells cannot detoxify by themselves when submitted to sunlight. Plant proteins contained in Aldenine® selectively boost the synthesis of Collagen III. It is particularly formulated for the stabilization of its main active ingredient, the GHK tripeptide (Tripeptide-1).
Aldenine® performs two main functions: skin protection against RCS and enhancement of Collagen III production.
The plant proteins in Aldenine® boost the production of Collagen Ill up to 300% in a week, as proved by an in vitro test in human fibroblasts. Collagen Ill is present in youthful skin and is substituted by Collagen I as we age.
The antiglycation activity
Collagen cross-linking is a reaction produced by glycation and is responsible for the hardening of collagen as well as the deterioration of skin with age. Molecules with reactive carbonyl centers, such as RCS and sugars, are responsible for protein cross-linking.
This test was carried out to evaluate the ability to inhibit glycation. The incubation of Superoxide Dismutase (SOD) with sugars gives rise to glycation, which inactivates the enzyme. In this study, the inactivation of SOD by its reaction with fructose is used as a model of glycation. - lc the active ingredient in ALDENINE®, is evaluated as an anti-glycation agent. The results showed that there is an increase in the SOD activity, which means that GHK inhibits its glycation, and therefore inhibits cross-linking caused by RCS or sugars.
The antioxidant activity
HNE (4-hydroxy-(E)-2-nonenal) is one of the most abundant and toxic of these RCS. It originates from the degradation of arachidonic and linoleic acids and it is relatively abundant in biological tissues. I INE-protein adducts are detected in photodamaged and aged skin but not in young healthy skin. Keratinocytes detoxify endogenously-formed HNE by forming adducts with GSH (glutathione), the skin's natural antioxidant. But when submitted to UVB, keratinocytes are depleted of GSH (25% depletion after 4 h), they can no longer detoxify from HNE and they die.
So we need an external agent to help keratinocytes capture HNE when the skin is exposed to sunlight. Lipotec S.A. has discovered, in collaboration with the University of Milan, that one of the actives in ALDENINE®, the tripeptide GHK, can specifically and effectively capture RCS.